"Cryptographic Techniques" TAG

Formal Verification
  • glossary
Formal verification provides certain mathematical guarantees that a smart contract does what it is supposed to do, at least according to how it is programed. This is usually done by creating an abstract mathematical model of the smart contract that can be proved to be equivalent to the specifications provided. Thus, it is possible to...
Hashed TimeLock Contract (HTLC)
  • glossary
A Hashed TimeLock Contract (HTLC) is a conditional payment method that requires the receiver to either acknowledge receipt prior to a deadline or forfeit the ability to claim the payment in the future, thereby returning it to the payer. After an HTLC is initiated, the transacted funds are held in a primitive smart contract allowing...
Multisignature Transaction
  • glossary
Multisignature (multisig) is a transaction method that requires multiple private keys in order to authorize the transaction. Users can define arbitrary requirements of M-of-N signatures to execute a valid transaction; for example, a 2-of-2 multisig is required to close payment channels in the Lightning Network, requiring both keys to sign the transaction. By distributing responsibility...
Cut-throughs
  • glossary
Cut-through, or transaction cut-through, is a technique for validating transactions that obviates nodes’ need to validate intermediate transactions. The technique offers some scaling advantages to those protocols employing it, such as Grin or Beam, since nodes do not need a complete history of past UTXOs transactions for validation purposes, requiring only the most recent UTXOs.
Dandelion Routing
  • glossary
Dandelion Routing, originally proposed as a Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP), is a traffic routing algorithm designed to obscure the path of information between IP addresses. This approach increases the difficulty of a DDoS attack against a node. Grin uses Dandelion Routing to help obscure the off-chain communication between parties required to prepare transactions.
Ring Signatures
  • glossary
A ring signature is a type of digital signature that enables anonymous endorsement. Any member of a group of users that each have keys can perform a ring signature. One can thus infer, from a ring signed message, that someone in a particular group endorsed the message, even when one does not know which individual...
Zero-Knowledge Proof
  • glossary
A zero knowledge proof is a method of verifying information relative to a set of parameters without actually accessing the information itself; thus, it is possible to verify the correctness of computations without actually computing them. The first instantiation of zk-SNARKS on a blockchain came from Zcash, allowing proof that a particular transaction is valid...
zk-SNARKS
  • glossary
zk-SNARKS are a type of zero-knowledge proofs, distinguished from other varieties largely by their succinctness, a formal property of proofs whose instantiation enables zk-SNARKS to verify both simple and complex problems with comparable effort. zk-SNARKS were first applied to blockchain transactions by Zcash as a cryptographic method for proving that a particular transaction is valid...
Peeling
  • glossary
Peeling is used as an attempt to obscure Bitcoins on the blockchain, typically to hide Bitcoin obtained through theft or illicit activity. Peeling begins with a single “dirty” address that can be linked to theft or illicit activity, such as purchases on dark markets. A small amount is peeled off from this address, with the...
Public-key Cryptography
  • glossary
Public key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is a means of securely communicating sensitive information and it underpins open standards such as Transport Layer Security for the internet. Public key cryptography enables encryption and signatures on the basis of a publicly visible key which where the resulting commitment is only decryptable by the person with the...
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