September 11, 2019 zCash development group releases Halo, a technique for implementing zkSNARK technology without a trusted setup.

The Electric Coin Company details the first practical example of recursive proof composition without a trusted setup, using cycles of elliptic curves. The technique may also reduce the amount of data needed for proof verification, with potential blockchain scalability applications. The existing zCash network utilized a trusted setup, which some have argued is a vulnerability. The ECC is exploring direct applications of Halo to zCash, potentially integrated as a future fork.